Why this change in attitude? Clearly, recent volatility has made it a higher priority for treasurers and CFOs, and they have encouraged their stakeholders to consider alternative approaches in this area. However, I think there is also a pragmatic trend towards SPECULATIVE accounting under IFRS. Auditors are increasingly trying to reconcile the results of the balance sheet with the economic coverage situation and the risk management policy of each company. We now see it at the highest level, where the preliminary decisions of the IASB on IFRS 9 involve aligning the results of speculative accounting in accordance with your risk management policy. Company A identified the swap as a hedge edging on changes in the fair value of the fixed interest note resulting from changes in the fixed reference rate and the libor as a guaranteed reference rate. Therefore, entity A can use the connection method. Since the critical terms (principles/fictitious amounts and maturity dates) of the debt and the interest rate swap match and other ASC 815 criteria are met, the coverage is considered to be perfectly effective. All this is good news for those who have suffered the vagaries of the monetary base because of their gains and losses. On a larger scale, it`s also a very encouraging development for other aspects of hedge accounting, especially if we take a look at phase 3 of IFRS 9 – for many, it can`t happen fast enough. Bank records find that the most variable risk and return mix occurs when the total amount of loans is about the same for each type, but the recent credit activity has resulted in a surplus of fixed-rate loans. To correct the imbalance, the Bank enters into interest rate swaps with companies that prefer fixed-rate credit.
An interest rate swap is a bespoke contract between two parties to exchange two cash flow schedules. The most common reason for an interest rate swap is the exchange of a variable interest payment for a fixed-rate payment or vice versa. Thus, a company that has only been able to obtain a variable rate loan can actually convert the loan into a fixed rate loan via an interest rate swap. This approach is particularly attractive when a borrower can only obtain a fixed-rate loan through the payment of a premium, but can combine a variable rate loan with an interest rate swap to obtain a fixed-rate loan at a lower price. A company may want to take the opposite approach and exchange fixed interest payments for variable payments. This occurs when the Treasurer thinks that interest rates will fall during the swap period and that he wants to use lower interest rates. Then imagine that the agent entered an FX swap instead (case 2). The accounts would be identical to those in Case 1. Indeed, an FX swap consists of two legs: the current exchange (or spotbein) and the obligation to trade in the future – exactly the front leg. The only difference from case 1 is that two transactions consist of a contract with the same counterparty. This example does not take into account the other benefits that abc may have obtained by participating in the swap.
For example, the company may have needed another loan, but lenders were not willing to do so unless the interest obligations on its other obligations were set. The shortcut method greatly simplifies speculative accounting for interest rate swaps. In the case of an interest rate swap, the parties exchange cash flows on the basis of a fictitious capital (this amount is not actually exchanged) in order to hedge against interest rate risks or speculate.