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Who Signed The Kyoto Agreement

The U.S. pulled out of the deal in 2001, calling the treaty unfair because it only required developed countries to reduce their emissions and believed it would hurt the U.S. economy. The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement that aims to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and the presence of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. The fundamental principle of the Kyoto Protocol was that industrialized countries should reduce the amount of their CO2 emissions. For most Contracting States, 1990 is the base year for the national GHG inventory and the calculation of the amount allocated. [40] However, five States Parties have another base year:[40] The Protocol divided countries into two groups: Annex I contained industrialized countries and non-Annex I developing countries. The Protocol sets emission restrictions only for Annex I countries. Non-Annex I countries have participated by investing in projects to reduce emissions in their countries. The CDM and JI are called “project-based mechanisms” because they generate emission reductions from projects. The difference between the EIT and project-based mechanisms is that the EIT is based on setting a quantitative emission limit, while the CDM and IOC are based on the idea of “producing” emission reductions. [43] The CDM aims to promote the production of emission reductions in non-Annex I Parties, while JI encourages the production of emission reductions in Annex I Parties. The Protocol defines three “flexibility mechanisms” that can be used by Annex I Parties to meet their emission control obligations.

[41]:402 The flexibility mechanisms are the International Emissions Trading System (EET), the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI). The EIT allows Annex I Parties to “trade” their emissions (assigned amount units, UA or “allowances” for short). [42] The treaty could be extended during the COP17 climate negotiations currently taking place in Durban, so let`s take a look at a handful of countries that have signed Kyoto. 1992: The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development is held in Rio de Janeiro. This results, inter alia, in the Framework Convention on Climate Change (“UNFCCC” or “UNFCCC”). As of May 2013, 191 countries and one regional economic organization (EC) had ratified the agreement, accounting for more than 61.6% of the 1990 emissions of Annex I countries. [97] One of the 191 states that ratified it – Canada – renounced the Protocol. The protocol left open several issues that were then to be decided by the sixth COP6 Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC, which attempted to resolve these issues at its meeting in The Hague in late 2000, but was unable to reach an agreement due to disputes between the European Union (which advocated stricter implementation) and the United States.

Canada, Japan and Australia (who wanted the agreement to be less demanding and more flexible). The 2010 Cancún Accords contain voluntary commitments by 76 developed and developing countries to control their greenhouse gas emissions. [145] In 2010, these 76 countries together accounted for 85% of annual global emissions. [145] [146] Following the end of the kyoto Protocol`s first commitment period in December 2012, Parties to the Protocol met in Doha, Qatar, to discuss an amendment to the original Kyoto Accord. The Doha Amendment added new targets for the second commitment period 2012-2020 for participating countries, in which Parties committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by at least 18% below 1990 levels. See, the full list of countries that have not yet signed or ratified the Kyoto Protocol: The Green Investment Programme (GIS) is a plan to reap environmental benefits from excess allowance trading (AU) under the Kyoto Protocol. [55] The Green Investment Scheme (GIS), a mechanism under the International Emissions Trading System (EET), aims to achieve greater flexibility in achieving the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol while preserving the environmental integrity of ETEs. .